Sunday, January 19, 2020

Pom Study Guide

Service Processes – Session 1 The Lean Enterprise Clear focus in operating decisions leads to superior performance But, limits to flexibility, risk of (market or technical) obsolescence, or the routine Operations Strategy is about deciding what solution to offer (product or service), to who, and how to deliver it. [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] Manufacturing Process – Session 2 Distinct business processes are appropriate to create distinct value propositions Jumbled flow (job shop) for low volume and highly customized solutions †¢ Disconnected line flow (batch) for multiple products in moderate volumes †¢ Connected line flow (Assembly line) for high volume of major products †¢ Continuous flow for commodity products Important sources of cost differentials †¢ Operations strategy †¢ Operational efficiency The dynamics of the product-process matrix †¢ Positioning in the P-P matrix is not only driven by operations strategy but also by the product lifeline †¢ Moving in the P-P matrix requires changing the entire mindset/culture of the organization [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] pic] Part II – Business Process Analysis and Improvement Customer Response Performance in Services – Session 3 From parameters to performance If s = 1 server [pic]or use lookup table if s > 1 Parameters sNumber of Servers ?Frequency of arrivals -> x/day / x/hr / x/minute ?Average service time -> days / hrs / minutes ?=1/ ? Service rate ?Utilization; ? = /s CVCoefficient of variation; CV = ? /? (stddev/mean) CVSVariation of service time = / , = 1 if Exponential, 0 if constant. CVAVariation of arrival rate = / , = 1 if Poisson. Average performance measures WqWaiting time WTotal throughput timeLqNumber of customers in the queue LNumber of customers in the system Wq + ? Customer response time Single Server What are the parameters? ?,? , CVA, CVS 1. Find ? = 2. Find Wq from the formula above 3. Lq = ? Wq W = Wq + ? L = ? W Multiple Server 1 . What are the parameters? ?,? , s 2. Find ? = /s 3. Find Lq from table using s and ? ; Assumes CVA = 1 and CVS = 1. 4. Wq = Lq/? W = Wq + ? L = ? W Assembly lineJob Shop CVS0> 1 CVA^v Utilization (target)~90%~60% If multiple production machines, equalize Lq across the production lines Waiting is â€Å"inevitable†, even with less than 100% utilization Scale effects, ? †¢ Utilization effects, ? /(1- ? ) †¢ Variability effects, (CVA2 + CVS2)/2 Little’s Law: Inventory = rate x wait (on average) In general, for stable systems (? < 1), the average inventory in system = average arrival rate x average time in system. Can also be used to calculate the average time in system. L = ? W Managing waits/customer response time †¢ Remove non-value added steps to reduce processing time (? v, ? v) †¢ Reduce variability in demand (CVAv) and process (CVSv) †¢ Pool resources to more effectively use existing capacity (s^) Lessons for Life: Keep slackWhat is the Goa l of the Enterprise? – Session 4 Definitions ThroughputThe rate at which the system generates revenues Production is not revenue Capacity utilization is not the goal, only a possible means to achieve it InventoryThe level of capital invested in the system â€Å"It takes money to make money† †¦ just don’t take too much Money costs money; Opportunity cost of equity, interest charged on debt. Managing with bottlenecks 1. Find the bottleneck 2. Maximize throughput by exploiting the bottleneck o Avoid starving the bottleneck (create buffer for some inventory in front of it). Lost capacity at bottleneck is lost forever o Schedule to keep it busy. Reduce number of setups at the bottleneck (big batches) 3. Elevate: Increase capacity at bottleneck o Reduce length of setup time at the bottleneck o Quality check: Don’t let bad parts be processed on the bottleneck o Offload work to any other resource that can handle it (e. g. cross training, task offloading; res ources in-house or contracted out) o More capacity at bottleneck means more throughput 4. As one bottleneck is resolved, a new bottleneck appears elsewhere. Repeat! 5.Minimize inventory at non-bottlenecks o ‘Drum’ and ‘rope’ scheduling to let the bottleneck set the pace for input materials, to ‘balance flow’. o Reduce batch sizes at non bottle-neck o Efficiency & capacity improvements at non-bottleneck may reduce inventory, but won’t improve throughput 6. Bottleneck early in process simplifies flow management 7. The bottleneck may also be o Accounting systems or focus on operational targets (are not goals, should enable achievement of goals) o Mindsets o Suppliers o Market The â€Å"Goal† approach to management 1. Identify your goal . Identify your bottleneck 3. Exploit your bottleneck a. Don’t starve the bottleneck b. Lost capacity at the bottleneck is lost forever 4. Subordinate all other decisions to step 3 a. The bottle neck is the â€Å"drum† for loading the system 5. Elevate your bottleneck a. Find ways to increase the capacity at the bottleneck 6. Identify your next bottleneck a. Don’t let inertia set in Process of Continuous Improvement †¢ WHAT is it that I should seek to achieve? What is the fundamental challenge? †¢ WHERE is the bottleneck? What prohibits me/us from doing better? †¢ HOW to change?How can I alleviate or even remove this bottleneck? It is the task of the manager to create a process for continuous improvement, not just ad hoc solutions. Key Lessons from Industrial Excellence Award (IEA) Changing Strategies3 months Changing Product Design6 months – 2 years Changing Plant Process2 – 4 years Excellence of Plant Managers †¢ Forecast needed changes in company’s manufacturing strategy †¦ before anyone tells them †¢ Prepare plant’s processes for future changes in product mix †¦ before anyone tells them Busines s Process Economics – Session 5 Process Model Effective capacity of process as a whole is determined by the bottleneck step (step with the smallest effective capacity, expressed in units of final output) †¢ Expressed in units of final output, the effective capacity of a process step depends on downstream losses †¢ Effective capacity of a step also depends on the net availability of that step (including working hours, equipment breakdowns, preventive maintenance, †¦) †¢ In a continuous process, no inventory between steps is allowed. If one step becomes unavailable all upstream steps are immediately blocked and all downstream steps are immediately starved.Levers for Process Improvement †¢ Yield improvements/quality control o Before bottleneck ? Reduce input cost per unit output (lower variable costs! ) ? Capacity doesn’t change (bottleneck still limiting factor) o After bottleneck ? More output per unit input (lower variable costs! ) ? Capacity i ncreases (effect on fixed cost allocation per unit) ? Might change the bottleneck †¢ Bottleneck speed improvement (infrastructure/availability similar) o Increases capacity – more productive hours o Unit variable costs don’t change (same output per unit input) o Bottleneck might shift Ask to see throughput model †¢ Volatility: Can be in demand and price more than in production process Key Lessons †¢ Process flow analysis is needed to understand economics of production and value of improvement, which is essential for good business decisions †¢ The impact of levers for improvement depend on where (in the system) they are used: o Improvement at bottleneck ? Improves the whole system ? May shift the bottleneck o Yield (and quality) improvement before bottleneck ? Use less input per unit output o Yield (and quality) improvement after bottleneck ? Produce more outputs per unit inputYou can always improve by implementing continuous improvement/learning eff orts. Part III – Inventory: Operations and Tactics Customer Response Performance in Manufacturing Operations – Session 6 The Toyota Production System is the benchmark. Definitions BlockingCaused when downstream is slower than upstream StarvationCaused when downstream is faster than upstream BTFBuild-To-Forecast BTOBuild-To-Order Response Times – CRT ? TPT = OQT + PCT CRTCustomer Response Time TPTThroughput Time OQTOrder Queue Time PCTProcess Cycle Times The role of inventory Blocking goes down with inventory, use idle time to produce buffers.If we have a buffer, then starvation will also go down. Push 1. No WIP control 2. If buffer before has units, you produce at next machine Pull 1. WIP control 2. If inventory buffer after needs units, you produce at previous machine If no variability, PUSH = PULL! As variability increases for each machine, what happens to system capacity and why? †¢ As CV2 increases, we are already losing capacity and further increase ha s less effect. †¢ Asymptotic behaviour – capacity approaches 0. As serial length of facility increases, what happens to system capacity and why? As length increases, we are already losing capacity to variability and further increase has less effect. †¢ Asymptotic behaviour – capacity approaches 0. †¢ Once again, kanban length increases capacity. WIP Strategy | |Push |Pull | |BTO | |Target | |BTF |Compaq Now |>^ | Producing to Forecast – Session 7 Supply Chain Management – How Much To order |Demand |5 |6 |7 | |Probability |1/3 |1/3 |1/3 | Cost: $5 |Price |$5. 05 |$10 |$100 | Order Quantity |5 |6 |7 | Reasoning: Margin vs Cost. If margin < Cost, = Cost or > Cost, order quantity will vary accordingly. |Qty |5 |6 |7 | |E[Sales] |5 |5*1/3 + 6*2/3 |5*1/3 + 6*1/3 + 7 * 1/3| |E[Lost Sales] |1 |1/3 |0 | |E[Salvage] |0 |1/3 |1 | E[Demand] = 6 E[Sales] = E[Demand] – E[Lost Sales] E[Salvages] = i – E[Sales] i = ordered quantity -C + VProb (D ? i) = 0 VProb(D ? i) = C Prob(D ? i) = C/V i = ? + z?E[Profits] = Revenue – Cost = Price * E[Sales] + Salvage*E[Salvage] – i * C E[Sales] = E[Demand] – E[Lost Sales] E[Lost Sales] = E[D – i] = NormalLoss(z)* ? Supply Decisions – Alternative Manufacturing / Processing 1. Calculate â€Å"Profit† function for alternative 1 (piV1 – C1) 2. Calculate â€Å"Profit† function for alternative 2 (piV2 – C2) 3. Solve for pi by setting piV1 – C1 = piV2 – C2 4. pi defines the breakpoint. a. Alternative 1 is better when P(D? i) ? pi b. Alternative 2 is better when P(D? i) > pi 5. Use the z-lookup table to find z for pi a. Use this to calculate the order quantity for Alternative 1 (i1) 6.Calculate the full chance tree for option 2 to find total order quantity (i*) 7. Calculate i2 = i* – i1 Note: If multiple options, repeat process successively. Business Process Competition: M&S and Zara – Session 8 |[pic] |[pic] | Inventory Management depends upon the clock speed of the process †¢ Long lead times -> Forecast -> FGI Process (in contrast to product) innovation is an enormous weapon that can disupt the basis of competition †¢ Drive to mass customization, postponement, †¦ †¢ Shifts the diagonal of the product-process matrix downContinuous improvement is a key competitive weapon too, but can lead to rigidity †¢ Market segments, product needs, and technologies shift o Can you adapt your process and market approach fast enough? †¢ Business process reengineering is a difficult alternative to execute †¢ Business process portfolio management may be a good alternative Part IV – Total Quality Management Quality Management in Services – Session 9 Deming †¢ Prevention rather than cure o Process Improvement o Plan, Do, Check, Act †¢ Variations in Manufacturing and Service performance comes from o Process Design – 99% Process Operati ons – 1% †¢ How to divide process variations across design and operations? †¢ Process variation occurs due to many factors o Normal Distribution! ? Central tendency = mean (? ) ? Variability = standard deviation (? ) Historical Performance †¢ Process is in control – process works well according to historical performance †¢ Process is out of control – process has changed 1. Historical mean [pic] 2. Two points consecutively close to UCL or LCL 3. Five consecutive points above/below mean 4. Increasing or decreasing trends (mean is shifting) Tracking Mechanics Discrete variables (Yes/No or OK/defect measure) †¢ P-chart (or s-chart) track proportion defectives (or cumulative number of defectives) †¢ Identify when process goes outside of lower control limit (LCL) or upper control limit (UCL) †¢ Continuous variables (width, time, temp, †¦) †¢ X-bar identifies changes in central position (process mean) through tracking sample mean †¢ R-bar identifies changes in variability (process variation) through tracking sample range (hi-low) Capability analysis †¢ What is the currently â€Å"inherent† capability of my process when it is â€Å"in control†? Conformance analysis SPC charts identify when control has likely been lost and assignable cause variation has occurred Investigate for assignable cause †¢ Find â€Å"Root Cause(s)† of Potential Loss of Statistical Control Eliminate or replicate assignable cause †¢ Need Corrective Action To Move Forward Process Capability & Total Quality Management – Session 10 Definitions CpProcess Capability ratio CpkProcess Reliability Index LCLLower Control Limit LSLLower Specification Limit LTLLower Tolerance Limit (See LSL) UCLUpper Control Limit USLUpper Specification Limit UTLUpper Tolerance Limit (See USL) Potential [pic] gt; 1implies that potential is good, i. e. that the specification limits are greater than the potential performance of the system < 1implies that the potential is bad Performance [pic] > 1implies that performance is good, i. e. that the upper and lower specification limits are more than 3 standard deviations away from the mean performance of the system Why Quality? †¢ Revenue Impact – Customer Satisfaction o Value o Fitness of Use †¢ Cost Impact – Cost of poor quality o Prevention costs o Appraisal costs o Internal failure costs o External failure costs Costs of Quality : Juran model Prevention Costs |Appraisal Costs |Internal Failure|External Failure | | | |Costs |Costs | |Very good machines |Inspection costs |Cost of rework |Costs of warranty | |Very well-trained |Review costs |Scrap costs |Customers go to | |workers | | |competitors | |Excellent, |Workers stopping |Lost time on |Legal costs | |well-defined process |the line |machines | | |Standard operating |Process improvement| |Brand image | |procedures defined |costs | |affected | |clearly | | | | At each stage, costs multiply by a factor of 10!!! The Process Improvement Cycle – PDCA †¢ PLAN a quality improvement o Select theme, grasp situation, preliminary analysis, training programmes, introduce tracking measures and controls, etc†¦ †¢ DO the investigations for improvements Investigate the deviations from â€Å"normal† behaviour – these are opportunities for improvement – and find improvement actions †¢ CHECK the effectiveness of improvement actions o Confirm the effect of countermeasures †¢ ACT by implementing the improvement measures throughout the company [pic] PART V – Course in Review Inventory Between Buyers and Suppliers – Session 11 JIT – Just in Time †¢ Produce what the customer wants, when it is wanted, in the amount it is wanted, where it is wanted †¢ High Volume †¢ Low Inventory (raw materials, WIP, FGI) †¢ Demand pull (produce when needed) †¢ Little JIT: scheduling, inve ntory †¢ Bit JIT (â€Å"lean†): eliminate waste in all activities (scheduling, inventory, human resources, vendors, technology) Seven Forms of Waste (â€Å"MUDA†) |Seven Methods to Eliminate Waste | |Overproduction |Focused factory networks | |Waiting time |Group technology | |Transportation waste |Quality at the source | |Inventory waste |JIT production | |Processing waste |Uniform plant loading | |Waste of motion |Kanban production | |Product defects |Minimize setup times | JIT vs JIT II |JIT |JIT I |Ideal view: piece for piece; lot for lot | | | |Eliminate excess (RMI, WIP and FGI) inventory | | | |Pull supply chain view | | | |Supplier timely and efficient source (RMI) | |JIT II |Administration and management | | | |Eliminate administrative waste | | | |Supplier pulls production from his own plant | | | |Supplier is an effective source of ideas too | Potential gains †¢ Reduced lead times of delivery †¢ Reduced costs of procurement †¢ Avoid exces s inventory stock †¢ Better monitoring of incoming quality †¢ Greater role in new product development for supplier Potential hazards †¢ Supplier gains inside information on cost, process & design †¢ Loss of bargaining power with supplier †¢ Cannot change suppliers easily Requirements for JIT II to create opportunities for win-win †¢ Fair prices †¢ Commitment Communication †¢ Transparency Increasing competition leads to greater focus on core competencies and process efficiencies †¢ JIT is about having lean manufacturing processes to reduce waste †¢ JIT II is about reducing waste with suppliers and distributors Benefits of JIT II include †¢ Improve communication across firm boundaries †¢ Reducing rework †¢ Reducing duplication †¢ Offload work to any other resource that can handle it (e. g. cross training, task Real Just-In-Time delivery (less inventory in the supply chain) †¢ Increased involvement in the buyer- supplier relationship results in better products/services for the customer Conditions for JIT II to work Sufficient volume and transactions to generate cost savings †¢ Supplier has good engineering capabilities to improve overall product/service †¢ Supplier does not provide core technologies for the buyer †¢ TRUST†¦. How to build trust? o Common goal, open communication, and commitment ———————– Prob(D< i) -c C = c – s ith unit demanded Prob(D ? i) Salvage Value ith unit not demanded Revenue Value = revenue – salvage Work in Progress PUSH PULL No Inventory Control Inventory Control Finished Goods Inventory Build-To-Forecast Build-To-Order FGI >> 0 FGI ~0 Capability Analysis Conformance Analysis Eliminate Assignable Cause Investigate for Assignable Cause Pom Study Guide Service Processes – Session 1 The Lean Enterprise Clear focus in operating decisions leads to superior performance But, limits to flexibility, risk of (market or technical) obsolescence, or the routine Operations Strategy is about deciding what solution to offer (product or service), to who, and how to deliver it. [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] Manufacturing Process – Session 2 Distinct business processes are appropriate to create distinct value propositions Jumbled flow (job shop) for low volume and highly customized solutions †¢ Disconnected line flow (batch) for multiple products in moderate volumes †¢ Connected line flow (Assembly line) for high volume of major products †¢ Continuous flow for commodity products Important sources of cost differentials †¢ Operations strategy †¢ Operational efficiency The dynamics of the product-process matrix †¢ Positioning in the P-P matrix is not only driven by operations strategy but also by the product lifeline †¢ Moving in the P-P matrix requires changing the entire mindset/culture of the organization [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] pic] Part II – Business Process Analysis and Improvement Customer Response Performance in Services – Session 3 From parameters to performance If s = 1 server [pic]or use lookup table if s > 1 Parameters sNumber of Servers ?Frequency of arrivals -> x/day / x/hr / x/minute ?Average service time -> days / hrs / minutes ?=1/ ? Service rate ?Utilization; ? = /s CVCoefficient of variation; CV = ? /? (stddev/mean) CVSVariation of service time = / , = 1 if Exponential, 0 if constant. CVAVariation of arrival rate = / , = 1 if Poisson. Average performance measures WqWaiting time WTotal throughput timeLqNumber of customers in the queue LNumber of customers in the system Wq + ? Customer response time Single Server What are the parameters? ?,? , CVA, CVS 1. Find ? = 2. Find Wq from the formula above 3. Lq = ? Wq W = Wq + ? L = ? W Multiple Server 1 . What are the parameters? ?,? , s 2. Find ? = /s 3. Find Lq from table using s and ? ; Assumes CVA = 1 and CVS = 1. 4. Wq = Lq/? W = Wq + ? L = ? W Assembly lineJob Shop CVS0> 1 CVA^v Utilization (target)~90%~60% If multiple production machines, equalize Lq across the production lines Waiting is â€Å"inevitable†, even with less than 100% utilization Scale effects, ? †¢ Utilization effects, ? /(1- ? ) †¢ Variability effects, (CVA2 + CVS2)/2 Little’s Law: Inventory = rate x wait (on average) In general, for stable systems (? < 1), the average inventory in system = average arrival rate x average time in system. Can also be used to calculate the average time in system. L = ? W Managing waits/customer response time †¢ Remove non-value added steps to reduce processing time (? v, ? v) †¢ Reduce variability in demand (CVAv) and process (CVSv) †¢ Pool resources to more effectively use existing capacity (s^) Lessons for Life: Keep slackWhat is the Goa l of the Enterprise? – Session 4 Definitions ThroughputThe rate at which the system generates revenues Production is not revenue Capacity utilization is not the goal, only a possible means to achieve it InventoryThe level of capital invested in the system â€Å"It takes money to make money† †¦ just don’t take too much Money costs money; Opportunity cost of equity, interest charged on debt. Managing with bottlenecks 1. Find the bottleneck 2. Maximize throughput by exploiting the bottleneck o Avoid starving the bottleneck (create buffer for some inventory in front of it). Lost capacity at bottleneck is lost forever o Schedule to keep it busy. Reduce number of setups at the bottleneck (big batches) 3. Elevate: Increase capacity at bottleneck o Reduce length of setup time at the bottleneck o Quality check: Don’t let bad parts be processed on the bottleneck o Offload work to any other resource that can handle it (e. g. cross training, task offloading; res ources in-house or contracted out) o More capacity at bottleneck means more throughput 4. As one bottleneck is resolved, a new bottleneck appears elsewhere. Repeat! 5.Minimize inventory at non-bottlenecks o ‘Drum’ and ‘rope’ scheduling to let the bottleneck set the pace for input materials, to ‘balance flow’. o Reduce batch sizes at non bottle-neck o Efficiency & capacity improvements at non-bottleneck may reduce inventory, but won’t improve throughput 6. Bottleneck early in process simplifies flow management 7. The bottleneck may also be o Accounting systems or focus on operational targets (are not goals, should enable achievement of goals) o Mindsets o Suppliers o Market The â€Å"Goal† approach to management 1. Identify your goal . Identify your bottleneck 3. Exploit your bottleneck a. Don’t starve the bottleneck b. Lost capacity at the bottleneck is lost forever 4. Subordinate all other decisions to step 3 a. The bottle neck is the â€Å"drum† for loading the system 5. Elevate your bottleneck a. Find ways to increase the capacity at the bottleneck 6. Identify your next bottleneck a. Don’t let inertia set in Process of Continuous Improvement †¢ WHAT is it that I should seek to achieve? What is the fundamental challenge? †¢ WHERE is the bottleneck? What prohibits me/us from doing better? †¢ HOW to change?How can I alleviate or even remove this bottleneck? It is the task of the manager to create a process for continuous improvement, not just ad hoc solutions. Key Lessons from Industrial Excellence Award (IEA) Changing Strategies3 months Changing Product Design6 months – 2 years Changing Plant Process2 – 4 years Excellence of Plant Managers †¢ Forecast needed changes in company’s manufacturing strategy †¦ before anyone tells them †¢ Prepare plant’s processes for future changes in product mix †¦ before anyone tells them Busines s Process Economics – Session 5 Process Model Effective capacity of process as a whole is determined by the bottleneck step (step with the smallest effective capacity, expressed in units of final output) †¢ Expressed in units of final output, the effective capacity of a process step depends on downstream losses †¢ Effective capacity of a step also depends on the net availability of that step (including working hours, equipment breakdowns, preventive maintenance, †¦) †¢ In a continuous process, no inventory between steps is allowed. If one step becomes unavailable all upstream steps are immediately blocked and all downstream steps are immediately starved.Levers for Process Improvement †¢ Yield improvements/quality control o Before bottleneck ? Reduce input cost per unit output (lower variable costs! ) ? Capacity doesn’t change (bottleneck still limiting factor) o After bottleneck ? More output per unit input (lower variable costs! ) ? Capacity i ncreases (effect on fixed cost allocation per unit) ? Might change the bottleneck †¢ Bottleneck speed improvement (infrastructure/availability similar) o Increases capacity – more productive hours o Unit variable costs don’t change (same output per unit input) o Bottleneck might shift Ask to see throughput model †¢ Volatility: Can be in demand and price more than in production process Key Lessons †¢ Process flow analysis is needed to understand economics of production and value of improvement, which is essential for good business decisions †¢ The impact of levers for improvement depend on where (in the system) they are used: o Improvement at bottleneck ? Improves the whole system ? May shift the bottleneck o Yield (and quality) improvement before bottleneck ? Use less input per unit output o Yield (and quality) improvement after bottleneck ? Produce more outputs per unit inputYou can always improve by implementing continuous improvement/learning eff orts. Part III – Inventory: Operations and Tactics Customer Response Performance in Manufacturing Operations – Session 6 The Toyota Production System is the benchmark. Definitions BlockingCaused when downstream is slower than upstream StarvationCaused when downstream is faster than upstream BTFBuild-To-Forecast BTOBuild-To-Order Response Times – CRT ? TPT = OQT + PCT CRTCustomer Response Time TPTThroughput Time OQTOrder Queue Time PCTProcess Cycle Times The role of inventory Blocking goes down with inventory, use idle time to produce buffers.If we have a buffer, then starvation will also go down. Push 1. No WIP control 2. If buffer before has units, you produce at next machine Pull 1. WIP control 2. If inventory buffer after needs units, you produce at previous machine If no variability, PUSH = PULL! As variability increases for each machine, what happens to system capacity and why? †¢ As CV2 increases, we are already losing capacity and further increase ha s less effect. †¢ Asymptotic behaviour – capacity approaches 0. As serial length of facility increases, what happens to system capacity and why? As length increases, we are already losing capacity to variability and further increase has less effect. †¢ Asymptotic behaviour – capacity approaches 0. †¢ Once again, kanban length increases capacity. WIP Strategy | |Push |Pull | |BTO | |Target | |BTF |Compaq Now |>^ | Producing to Forecast – Session 7 Supply Chain Management – How Much To order |Demand |5 |6 |7 | |Probability |1/3 |1/3 |1/3 | Cost: $5 |Price |$5. 05 |$10 |$100 | Order Quantity |5 |6 |7 | Reasoning: Margin vs Cost. If margin < Cost, = Cost or > Cost, order quantity will vary accordingly. |Qty |5 |6 |7 | |E[Sales] |5 |5*1/3 + 6*2/3 |5*1/3 + 6*1/3 + 7 * 1/3| |E[Lost Sales] |1 |1/3 |0 | |E[Salvage] |0 |1/3 |1 | E[Demand] = 6 E[Sales] = E[Demand] – E[Lost Sales] E[Salvages] = i – E[Sales] i = ordered quantity -C + VProb (D ? i) = 0 VProb(D ? i) = C Prob(D ? i) = C/V i = ? + z?E[Profits] = Revenue – Cost = Price * E[Sales] + Salvage*E[Salvage] – i * C E[Sales] = E[Demand] – E[Lost Sales] E[Lost Sales] = E[D – i] = NormalLoss(z)* ? Supply Decisions – Alternative Manufacturing / Processing 1. Calculate â€Å"Profit† function for alternative 1 (piV1 – C1) 2. Calculate â€Å"Profit† function for alternative 2 (piV2 – C2) 3. Solve for pi by setting piV1 – C1 = piV2 – C2 4. pi defines the breakpoint. a. Alternative 1 is better when P(D? i) ? pi b. Alternative 2 is better when P(D? i) > pi 5. Use the z-lookup table to find z for pi a. Use this to calculate the order quantity for Alternative 1 (i1) 6.Calculate the full chance tree for option 2 to find total order quantity (i*) 7. Calculate i2 = i* – i1 Note: If multiple options, repeat process successively. Business Process Competition: M&S and Zara – Session 8 |[pic] |[pic] | Inventory Management depends upon the clock speed of the process †¢ Long lead times -> Forecast -> FGI Process (in contrast to product) innovation is an enormous weapon that can disupt the basis of competition †¢ Drive to mass customization, postponement, †¦ †¢ Shifts the diagonal of the product-process matrix downContinuous improvement is a key competitive weapon too, but can lead to rigidity †¢ Market segments, product needs, and technologies shift o Can you adapt your process and market approach fast enough? †¢ Business process reengineering is a difficult alternative to execute †¢ Business process portfolio management may be a good alternative Part IV – Total Quality Management Quality Management in Services – Session 9 Deming †¢ Prevention rather than cure o Process Improvement o Plan, Do, Check, Act †¢ Variations in Manufacturing and Service performance comes from o Process Design – 99% Process Operati ons – 1% †¢ How to divide process variations across design and operations? †¢ Process variation occurs due to many factors o Normal Distribution! ? Central tendency = mean (? ) ? Variability = standard deviation (? ) Historical Performance †¢ Process is in control – process works well according to historical performance †¢ Process is out of control – process has changed 1. Historical mean [pic] 2. Two points consecutively close to UCL or LCL 3. Five consecutive points above/below mean 4. Increasing or decreasing trends (mean is shifting) Tracking Mechanics Discrete variables (Yes/No or OK/defect measure) †¢ P-chart (or s-chart) track proportion defectives (or cumulative number of defectives) †¢ Identify when process goes outside of lower control limit (LCL) or upper control limit (UCL) †¢ Continuous variables (width, time, temp, †¦) †¢ X-bar identifies changes in central position (process mean) through tracking sample mean †¢ R-bar identifies changes in variability (process variation) through tracking sample range (hi-low) Capability analysis †¢ What is the currently â€Å"inherent† capability of my process when it is â€Å"in control†? Conformance analysis SPC charts identify when control has likely been lost and assignable cause variation has occurred Investigate for assignable cause †¢ Find â€Å"Root Cause(s)† of Potential Loss of Statistical Control Eliminate or replicate assignable cause †¢ Need Corrective Action To Move Forward Process Capability & Total Quality Management – Session 10 Definitions CpProcess Capability ratio CpkProcess Reliability Index LCLLower Control Limit LSLLower Specification Limit LTLLower Tolerance Limit (See LSL) UCLUpper Control Limit USLUpper Specification Limit UTLUpper Tolerance Limit (See USL) Potential [pic] gt; 1implies that potential is good, i. e. that the specification limits are greater than the potential performance of the system < 1implies that the potential is bad Performance [pic] > 1implies that performance is good, i. e. that the upper and lower specification limits are more than 3 standard deviations away from the mean performance of the system Why Quality? †¢ Revenue Impact – Customer Satisfaction o Value o Fitness of Use †¢ Cost Impact – Cost of poor quality o Prevention costs o Appraisal costs o Internal failure costs o External failure costs Costs of Quality : Juran model Prevention Costs |Appraisal Costs |Internal Failure|External Failure | | | |Costs |Costs | |Very good machines |Inspection costs |Cost of rework |Costs of warranty | |Very well-trained |Review costs |Scrap costs |Customers go to | |workers | | |competitors | |Excellent, |Workers stopping |Lost time on |Legal costs | |well-defined process |the line |machines | | |Standard operating |Process improvement| |Brand image | |procedures defined |costs | |affected | |clearly | | | | At each stage, costs multiply by a factor of 10!!! The Process Improvement Cycle – PDCA †¢ PLAN a quality improvement o Select theme, grasp situation, preliminary analysis, training programmes, introduce tracking measures and controls, etc†¦ †¢ DO the investigations for improvements Investigate the deviations from â€Å"normal† behaviour – these are opportunities for improvement – and find improvement actions †¢ CHECK the effectiveness of improvement actions o Confirm the effect of countermeasures †¢ ACT by implementing the improvement measures throughout the company [pic] PART V – Course in Review Inventory Between Buyers and Suppliers – Session 11 JIT – Just in Time †¢ Produce what the customer wants, when it is wanted, in the amount it is wanted, where it is wanted †¢ High Volume †¢ Low Inventory (raw materials, WIP, FGI) †¢ Demand pull (produce when needed) †¢ Little JIT: scheduling, inve ntory †¢ Bit JIT (â€Å"lean†): eliminate waste in all activities (scheduling, inventory, human resources, vendors, technology) Seven Forms of Waste (â€Å"MUDA†) |Seven Methods to Eliminate Waste | |Overproduction |Focused factory networks | |Waiting time |Group technology | |Transportation waste |Quality at the source | |Inventory waste |JIT production | |Processing waste |Uniform plant loading | |Waste of motion |Kanban production | |Product defects |Minimize setup times | JIT vs JIT II |JIT |JIT I |Ideal view: piece for piece; lot for lot | | | |Eliminate excess (RMI, WIP and FGI) inventory | | | |Pull supply chain view | | | |Supplier timely and efficient source (RMI) | |JIT II |Administration and management | | | |Eliminate administrative waste | | | |Supplier pulls production from his own plant | | | |Supplier is an effective source of ideas too | Potential gains †¢ Reduced lead times of delivery †¢ Reduced costs of procurement †¢ Avoid exces s inventory stock †¢ Better monitoring of incoming quality †¢ Greater role in new product development for supplier Potential hazards †¢ Supplier gains inside information on cost, process & design †¢ Loss of bargaining power with supplier †¢ Cannot change suppliers easily Requirements for JIT II to create opportunities for win-win †¢ Fair prices †¢ Commitment Communication †¢ Transparency Increasing competition leads to greater focus on core competencies and process efficiencies †¢ JIT is about having lean manufacturing processes to reduce waste †¢ JIT II is about reducing waste with suppliers and distributors Benefits of JIT II include †¢ Improve communication across firm boundaries †¢ Reducing rework †¢ Reducing duplication †¢ Offload work to any other resource that can handle it (e. g. cross training, task Real Just-In-Time delivery (less inventory in the supply chain) †¢ Increased involvement in the buyer- supplier relationship results in better products/services for the customer Conditions for JIT II to work Sufficient volume and transactions to generate cost savings †¢ Supplier has good engineering capabilities to improve overall product/service †¢ Supplier does not provide core technologies for the buyer †¢ TRUST†¦. How to build trust? o Common goal, open communication, and commitment ———————– Prob(D< i) -c C = c – s ith unit demanded Prob(D ? i) Salvage Value ith unit not demanded Revenue Value = revenue – salvage Work in Progress PUSH PULL No Inventory Control Inventory Control Finished Goods Inventory Build-To-Forecast Build-To-Order FGI >> 0 FGI ~0 Capability Analysis Conformance Analysis Eliminate Assignable Cause Investigate for Assignable Cause

Friday, January 10, 2020

Analyse How Moliere Uses Comedy as a Dramatic Technique in Le Tartuffe

Set in the 17th century, Moliere’s Drama, Le Tartuffe is a satirical representation of religious hypocrisy. Its comedy drives the play in a direction where the audience can not only be entertained but understand the morals which are portrayed. It is important to realise the historical context that influenced Moliere’s work of Le Tartuffe in order to understand the construction of the characters and comedy portrayed. Commedia dell’arte were a group of traveling players in Italy who specialised in improvised theatre, creating stock characters for every performance for the audience to identify with and understand their representation in a comic way. Some of these features have been known to have inspired Moliere’s construction of the plot and characters such as Clever talking Dorine shedding light on the truth. In that way, Dorine almost acts as a comedic dramatic tool to highlight the truths and themes of the play. This is particularly evident in her dialogue towards Madame Pernelle, ‘Il passe pour un saint dans votre fantaisie:/Tout son fait, croyez-moi, n’est rein qu’hypocrisie’(Moliere: 1. 1. 69) In supporting this idea, Peter Hampshire Nurse writes that Dorine has ‘brilliant wit with which she ridicules hypocrisy’ (1991:85). Although the majority of modern audience’s would find the witty servant humorous, Paula Alekson noted that ‘Moliere became a master of â€Å"Le ridicule†, so much so that in the process of making the audiences laugh, he made a multitude of serious enemies’(2007:ll 15-16). Away from the controversy that the themes created, Moliere generates much more of the comedy in terms of language, structure and pace of the play. For example in the exposition, when Madame Pernelle talks to the rest of the characters, we are able to see the desire of power towards the daughters as they try to speak by saying, ‘Mais†¦. Je crois†¦mais ma mere’ (Moliere:1. 1)but are cut off every time. Furthermore, repetition is used when Orgon says, ‘Et Tartuffe? / Le pauvre home! (Moliere:1. 4) This conveys Orgons constant obsessive nature over Tartuffe which provokes laughter. Of course when being performed the proxemics and movement of the character along with the dialogue would emphasise the comedy and complete farce that Moliere had stylized the play with. Overall, we are able to conclude that Moliere uses a variety of different techniques, and themes to make the comedy work for the play. We realise that it is not just a form of entertainment but to aid the audience in following the events in the play; to understand the central themes. Andrew Calder noted that Moliere does this in both his plays, Le Tartuffe (1664) and Don Jaun (1665). Calder states that they go ‘beyond the comic stage, and both reflect a lively interest in some of the most topical, moral and theological issues of the time. ’ (1973:153). [Wordcount:457] Bibliography Moliere, 2006. Le Tartuffe. Paris: Larousse. Alekson, Paula. 2007. Dramatic and Theatrical Style a la Moliere: Le ridicule, le naturel, and â€Å"The comic war†. [online] Available at: http://www. mccarter. org/Education/tartuffe/html/4. html Calder, Andrew. 1973. Moliere: The Theory and Practice of Comedy. London:Athlone Nurse, Peter Hampshire,1991. Moliere and The Comic Spirit. Geneve:Libraire Droz

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

The 5-Minute Rule for Family Life Writing Service

The 5-Minute Rule for Family Life Writing Service Choosing Good Family Life Writing Service A wholesome body makes a wholesome mind and thus, you should reflect on your diet plan and what foods you decide to eat each and every day. Avoiding fatty foods, following a nutritious food eating pattern drinking a great deal of water will assist you to feel and appear much better. Healthy eating is vital that you improve healthier and happy mind. Every human life is distinctive and valuable. Creating a positive mind is essential for developing a happy and healthful mind. Independent living may also contain the person's capacity to keep themselves safe from imminent danger of harm by self or others and the capacity to assess and mitigate that risk when living independently. A life story has the benefit of having the ability to be reviewed by the individual involved. Family Life Writing Service - the Conspiracy In some instances, an organization might need to move some folks along quickly, to be able to expose them to a wide array of experiences, and possibly to fill vacancies. There are various approaches which might be used, based on the situation in every firm. You're a legal expert that has been asked by means of a corporation to talk on the benefits of the cyber-court network, cyber-management and cyber-discovery procedures. Recognize that all companies do not need to adhere to the identical path either in the gene ral circumstance or even for each person. On a standard basis, each firm must examine its wants and resources to establish where it needs to get successors in place or in the procedure for learning the requisite disciplines. The idea of succession planning has come to be a valuable part of several companies' strategic planning but not in all companies. Family considerations have to be kept outside the on-the-job evaluations, or the whole process can turn out to be quite unsettling and less than objective for those individuals involved. Business considerations ought to take precedence over family considerations when it has to do with the welfare of the corporation. The reporter seems to think it'll be solved without a great deal of fuss. Today's employees are working in an extremely turbulent and competitive company and working atmosphere. Our company knows the way to offer essay help for company and academia because we've been doing it for a long time. It is completely plagiarism free! In the event you wished to dominate the match you definitely will have to use our hackon. How much you could earn while your paper work is being done by somebody, who knows the way to do it correctly! It might take some time for an interview to be scheduled based on the range of applicants being interviewed. Or if you're stuck, I can allow you to get back on the right track. What You Don't Know About Family Life Writing Service To compose a definition essay, you will want to define a word that. At our essay support, essays are always delivered in a brief moment. Personal essays center on the message and the meaning of events and characteristics as opposed to basic specifics. A financial essay can start out with a thesis, or it might start with a theme. The Hidden Secret of Family Life Writing Service Family Life Education takes place in a number of settings. Students lead busy lives and frequently forget about an approaching deadline. Family is a significant unit of soci ety. It is very important and valuable to me and is something that should never be taken for granted. Old foolscap a variety of the author provides an excellent. Studies reveal that family structure is a significant component in explaining delinquency among adolescents. Working women must quit either employment or private business to increase their children. Identify a family from a culture aside from america. If You Read Nothing Else Today, Read This Report on Family Life Writing Service There are lots of special things you would like to comprehend when writing an essay also. Individuals may now understand how to improve healthier and happier minds. The sole thing I must do is show up and do the job. A quick life story may be an alternate to writing an obituary ahead of time. The Help examines many different kinds of mother-daughter relationships. In case you require expert help with your paper, you've arrive at the right location.

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Bowlbys Theory of Attachments - 854 Words

John Bowlby’s Theory Attachment is a strong and emotional bond that develops over time between two individuals that is reciprocal. 1. THE THEORY * Bowlby’s theory suggests that attachment is evolutionary and is needed to aid survival. * He did observational research to link orphans with psychological damage. * Babies are helpless and rely on adults. They make instinctive decisions because they haven’t actually learnt anything yet. Bowlby said that babies must be genetically programmed to form attachments with others because this will help them to survive. * Five key aspects to Bowlby’s theory: * Attachment is adaptive and aids survival. * Babies have an innate need for care – social releasers (built†¦show more content†¦* The results show a link between deprivation and criminal behaviour but there may be other causes and factors. * Bowlby was asking the participants to look back and recall separations (retrospective data). These memories may not be accurate. Bowlby designed and conducted the experiment himself. This may have lead to biased results, particularly as he was responsible for making the diagnosis of affectionless psychopathy. * A bigger sample size should’ve been used to obtain more accurate and reliable results. 3. EVALUATION OF HIS THEORY * Bowlby’s ideas have had a great influence on the way researchers thought about attachment and much of the discussion of his theory has focused on his belief in monotropy. Although Bowlby may not dispute young children from multiple attachments, he still contends that the attachment to the mother is unique in this it is the first to appear and remains the strongest of all. * Schaffer and Emerson (1964) noted that specific attachments started at about 8 months and, very shortly thereafter, the infants became attached to other people. By 18 months very few (13%) were attached to only one person; some had five or more attachments. This criticises Bowlby’s idea of having to have continuous care from one mother figure as well as Bowlby’s view of the critical period and monotropy. * Rutter (1978) points out that several indicators of attachment (such asShow MoreRelatedBowlbys Theory Of Attachment1378 Words   |  6 PagesBowlby (1969) a nd his theory of attachment: An example of an extreme nature theorist is Bowlby (1969) and his theory of attachment. Bowlby believed that all mental health and behavioural problems could be linked to early childhood health. Bowlby’s theory suggests that all children are biologically pre-programmed to form relationships and attachments with others before they are even born for survival and that the fear of strangers in babies and young children represents an important survival mechanismRead MoreBowlbys Attachment Theory And Attachment1274 Words   |  6 PagesAccording to Simply Psychology, Bowlby’s attachment theory says an individual can have an attachment with someone that is not shared. Attachment is characterized by behaviors in children such as seeking proximity with their attachment figure when upset. Bowlby’s experiments led him to see the importance of a child and mother relationship. (Saul McLeod, 2009) With more research later came four phases of attachment. Phase one is from birth to two months, this stage is where babies seek comfort, andRead MoreBowlbys Attachment Theory Essay1943 Words   |  8 PagesBowlbys Attachment Theory Findings form animal studies were a powerful influence on Bowlbys thoughts. He suggested too that there was a critical period for the development of attachments between infant and care giver. According to Bowlby infants display an innate tendency to become attached to one particular individual. He called this monotropy. He suggested this tendency was qualitatively different from any subsequent attachment a child might form. However, heRead MoreJohn Bowlbys Theories of Attachment Theory949 Words   |  4 Pagesdo not develop in a void or as â€Å"individual monads† but as members of interacting systems. Bowlby developed his theory on attachment for several decades, and at a time where any dealings with childhood trauma were still rigorously influenced by Freudian psychoanalysis through the likes of psychoanalysts such Anna Freud or Melanie Klein. Even Winnicott was â€Å"revulsed† upon reading Bowlbys papers (siegel). It certainly was a bitter pill to swallow for psychoanalysts who had been repeating since FreudRead MoreModifications of Bowlbys Attachment Theory Essay1724 Words   |  7 PagesModifications of Bowlbys Attachment Theory Bowlbys original theory of attachment was concerned with the bonding relationship that develops between an infant and his primary caregiver. He believed the process of bonding to have a biological basis as the genes of those infants who successfully sought the protection of a caregiver (from predators and other dangers) will have survived and been passed on. Bowlby also formulated the Maternal Deprivation hypothesis (1953)Read MoreBowlby’s Attachment Theory Essay example1156 Words   |  5 PagesBowlby’s attachment theory has greatly influenced practice. His theory of attachment explains the importance of having a figure that the child shares a strong bond with. Having an attachment can significantly support a child’s development as Barbara Woods suggests that â€Å"his theory of attachment proposed that attachment is innate in both infants and mothers, and that the formation of this attachment is crucial for the infants development† Wood, B (2001, p.53). Bowlby believed that forming an attachmentRead MoreJohn Bowlbys Attachment Theory Essay2161 Words   |  9 PagesJohn Bowlby’s attachment theory established that an infant’s earliest relationship with their primary caregiver or mother shaped their later development and characterized their human life, â€Å"from the cradle to the grave† (Bowlby, 1979, p. 129). The attac hment style that an infant develops with their parent later reflects on their self-esteem, well-being and the romantic relationships that they form. Bowlby’s attachment theory had extensive research done by Mary Ainsworth, who studied the mother-infantRead MoreLearning Theory Of Attachment And The Other Being Bowlbys Evolution Theory1692 Words   |  7 Pageslater life. Attachment theories are studied and the effect of no attachment or disrupted attachment is studied and aimed to be resolved. John Bowlby defined attachment as the emotional and physical connection that makes two people stay close to one another. It is between children and their primary caregivers (Psychologistworld.com, 2016). This essay will discuss and evaluate two theories of attachment: one being Dollard and Miller’s learning theory of attachment and the other being Bowlby’s evolutionRead MoreJohn Bowlbys Path to Developing the Attachment Theory Essay593 Words   |  3 Pagesmany different theories on this subject, but a well-known theory is the Attachment Theory written by John Bowlby in the mid-twentieth century. John Bowlby born on February 26, 1907, was a twentieth century psychologist who contributed too many modern day psychoanalytic theories. At a young age he hardly saw his mother due to the fact that she believed, like many other mothers at that time, affection and attention would lead to spoiling of the child. So he developed a deep attachment to his nanny sinceRead MoreHow Has Bowlby’s Original Formulation of Attachment Theory Essay example2374 Words   |  10 PagesBowlby’s (1946) original formulation of attachment theory drew upon both psychoanalytic and ethol ogical theory and generated a significant amount of subsequent research. The core principle behind Bowlby’s theory was that the formation of a stable, healthy attachment with a caregiver in the early years of life is the key for an infants’ future emotional, social and cognitive development. Bowlby explained that this primary attachment relationship develops because infants need a mechanism to ensure

Monday, December 9, 2019

Discuss The Mechanism For The ENRON Scandal And Contrast The Actions

Question: Write a report on ENRON scandal. discuss the mechanism for the scandal and contrast the actions? Answer: Abstract The study aims to provide an insight into the functioning of Enron and provide an evidence of the functioning that led to the great fall. The study strives to shed light on the fact that corporate governance is the need of the hour and that proper code of ethics is essential for the smooth functioning of the company. Focusing on greed and money will lead to erosion of the goodwill. The scandals that have occurred can be linked to the corporate failure and low level of governance. Enron is one of the glaring examples where we can find that corporate governance was silent and unable to provide any guidance. Moreover, the directors and auditors must act in best interest of the company. Concept of Corporate Ethics The word ethics has been framed from ethos, a Greek word meaning character. Ethics is a part of social sciences that deals with ideas and helps person discriminate between good and bad, right and wrong, just and unjust and so on. Corporate ethics is also known by the name of business Ethics. It is a type of ethics that is professional in nature and sheds light on the ethical issues that happens in the business world. It is applicable in every department of business behavior and is linked to the nature of persons, as well as total organization. Corporate ethics are present in the organization so that the business is able to frame a better relationship with the customers and helps the relationship to flourish. Ethics helps to reduce expenses of the company and creates various opportunities for companies (Albuquerque et. al, 2013). When a company follows an ethical corporate culture and decisions of the company are mad keeping in mind that it would benefit everyone, losses too much exte nt is reduced, as the company earns its dividend in a proper way. Ethics and its implementation enable reduction of losses that happens when there is misconduct and it is spotted at a very stage. This helps in reduction of amount spent on fees, legal suits, assessment, etc. related with the behaviour. The word Corporate Ethics can be traced to United States in the year 1970. Firms started emphasizing on their ethical development with the due passage of time in 1980 and 1990, in order to keep themselves away to the highest of possibilities from the corporate scams like that of the savings and loan crisis. Corporations, as well as professional organizations, specifically licensing boards, have stressed on the ethics code that sets the level of professional behavior that is expected in each and every field. The Ethical does not always mean the rights and duties between a company and its employees but it is even concerned with suppliers, customers and neighbors, its fiduciary role to its shareholders (Goergen, 2012). The problems concerned with links of various companies contain the process of take-over in hostile form and industrial espionage (Fernando, 2009). Importance of Corporate Ethics Every responsible business organization understands the needs and values of corporate ethics. Company is a legal person who means it has a separate legal entity and employees working in it cannot be clubbed as one person, therefore it needs to work in a manner which would allow them to earn profit without forgetting its responsibility towards the society. Therefore, every responsible and quality business believes in following corporate ethics. The concept of corporate ethics implies the principles and values that influence the behavior of a businessman in the working environment, heedless of the fact whether the person is an employee of the business, or the owner itself (Mulbert, 2010). When the leaders or employers of the business is able to differentiate between right and wrong, proper direction to the business is provided then the business can be set be resting on the pillars of ethics. The following points explain the need for and importance of Corporate Ethics: Safeguard of Consumer Rights : Consumer is the highest authority all the business functions. As a matter of fact, the main reason for existence of business is that it is essentially meant for satisfaction of consumer needs and desires. But it is very unfortunate that consumers are not provided due regard. The implementation of corporate ethics will enable benefitting the customers in various forms (Venezia, 2005). Strong Link with the Society: Corporate ethics is very much required to establish good relationship between business and people. The link of business with that of society depends o certain factors like link with shareholders, employees, consumers, competitors and government. Movement of Consumer: In the current scenario, the consumers have become modern in their approach and are well versed with the happenings. Now they are aware of their rights and hence the business needs to be conducted in true spirit else it will become difficult for the business to operate. Interest of industry: Corporate ethics are extremely important to protect the interests of the small scale business firms. The habit of large scale business firms is always to dominate the market and knock the small industries out of the market. Business ethics helps units of small scale to set their sight and vouch for their right if the industry sets it aims towards a proper code of ethics (Fernando, 2009). The corporate ethics play a major role in establishment of the culture of an organization. If the leader of the organization exhibits ethical behavior, and motivates employees who conduct their business work in an ethical manner by rewarding them, then the organization will start to develop ethical grounds on which they conduct business, which ultimately will result in creation of an ethical culture in the business. Apart from the obvious benefits of corporate ethics in the form of a well grown and developed culture, more dignified corporate values, and a fully satisfied customer, corporate ethics expands way farther. A company that follows and believes in proper execution of corporate ethics survives on a long run. Corporate ethics should be implemented and examined by the management, followed by the employees, and with proper attention of the customers, a business can achieve its long term objectives and goals with corporate ethics. The more a business firm follows and executes it helps them gain more trust of customers and more longevity of the business (Lubatkin, 2009). On the other hand, the business that has a faulty ethics scenario is eroded completely and it is seen from the past two decades how some of the giant corporations bite the dust. Overview of Enron Enron, a corporation which had its headquarter in Houston, and runs as one of the biggest transmission of natural gas links in North America, covering more than 36,000 miles, and is also tagged as the world largest marketer when it comes to natural gas, as well as electricity in the US. The world's biggest natural gas risk department was run by Enron (Fusaro, 2000). The company was tagged as Fortune's "Most Innovative" in the US listing for many years operating and climbed to 7th position on the Fortune 500 list in the year 2000. The insolvency in December 2001 was the biggest that is witnessed in United States history. Enron became famous because of the wrong side such as greed, corruption, etc and also due to its false statements that duped the innocent customers. More than $70 billion was eroded in capitalization fee and retirement advantages. Enron was established after an agreement between Houston Natural Gas (HNG) and Intermonth. Enron made notable moves in to electrical power sector, in production of heat and power from the waste energy, in the late 1980s. Cogeneration plants used to produce electricity as well as thermal energy from a single source. In 1989, an agreement was entered into between Enron and Coastal Corporation that allowed Enron to enhance the production of natural gas from its Big Piney field in Wyoming. In the early 1990s, Enron gained the advantages of the emergence of Inter North-Houston Natural Gas. Enron's revenue was $16.3 billion in 1985 and it declined less than $10 billion in e next 4 years although it earned revenue up to $13.1 billion in 1990. A major cause of the decline was the low price of natural gas. It also projected drastic growth in its liquid fuels business and also the oil and gas business. In the starting of the year 1991, Enron established its first ever overseas power plant in Teesside, England, which went on to become the biggest gas-fired plant in the world. In the following time period, Enron built power plants in industrial as well as in developing nations all over the world. Enron's earning from such projects was about 25 percent of entire earnings of the company leaving apart interest, as well as taxes. In the USA, states were provided the authority to remove restrictions imposed on gas and electric utilities in 1994, stressing on the fact that residential customers can select usefulness in a similar way that they selected their phone carriers. Enron's profit, after the restrictions on national electricity market were lifted, was immense, and the company spent a major chunk on advertising, as well as attempting to influence for the cause. It also employed 100 of graduates from top business schools to help the company in defining new avenues (Goergen, 2012). Lasting Effect Enron provided a strong statement about what a company and its leader can do, when their only motive is to earn profits at any cost. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was framed considering the impact of Enron that made strong effort on disclosure and penalties for financial scams. The FASB to a great extent enhanced its sight of ethical behavior. Board of directors could work on an independent basis that enabled them to monitor audit companies and instantly replaced bad managers (Goergen, 2012). The influence was reactive in nature, they are essential to close the void that companies have utilized in order to escape accountability. Issues and its Impact Enron emerged after merging Houston Natural Gas and InterNorth in 1985 by Kenneth Lay. After many years, Jeffrey Skilling was employed , who established a staff of executives who made the most out of accounting flaws, special purpose entities, and made poor financial statements which them conceal billions amount in debt that arose from deal that failed (Sharp, 2006). Andrew Fastow, the Chief Financial Officer and other officers did everything that included misleading the directors, audit committee and influencing auditor is such a manner that they provided a good result despite of the drawbacks. The ignorance of the issue by the audit led to the major downfall because there was a conflict between the auditors and the consultant (Douma hein, 2013). By the end of 2000, Enron fell a prey in its own trap. CEO Jeffrey Skilling used a method for concealing the financial losses of the trading sector and other workings of the company which was called mark-to-market accounting. This is used in the trading of securities, in order to determine what the actual value of the security is at the moment. This method is suitable for securities, but catastrophic for other businesses (Nzuve, 2011). As far as Enron's case is concerned, the company created an asset, for example a power plant, and quickly claims the estimated profit on its books, even considering that it had not made a single penny out of it. If power plant revenue was less than the projected amount, instead of disclosing the loss, the company would transfer these assets to an off-the-books corporation, the loss was not reported. This kind of accounting lead to creation of an illusion that the company do not require profits, and by utilizing the mark-to-market method, Enron can easi ly write off any loss without hampering the bottom line of the company (Mulbert, 2010). This ensured that the company was able to showcase a picture that was rosy and the shareholders were happy with the performance, but in short everything was false and fabricated. Even the share prices were peaking new heights but the company was running on weak fundamentals. Mark-to-market SPE The mark-to-market practice provided policies that were formulated to conceal the losses and the benefit of this method enabled the company to project more profit. The profit was inflated by dint of this method. To ensure that the losses do not impact the company, Andrew Fastow, who was made CFO in 1998, designed a crafty plan that enabled the company to look in a great position even considering the fact that the subsidiaries, was making huge losses. In order to give effect to such plan, the concept of special purpose entities (SPE) was designed. An SPE can be used to conceal any assets through which a company is incurring losses or business ventures that have suffered losses, this method had the advantage that the unsuccessful assets can be kept away from the books of the company. Special Purpose entity was created to give effect to the scandal. The SPE was another tool and concept that was used in an effective manner to give effect to the scandal without any element of doubt (Butle r, 2009). Bankruptcy Enron, by mid of the year 2001, was under big difficulties. There were many retirements, the CEO Ken Lay had retired in February, which made Skilling the new CEO of Enron and that August, Jeff Skilling resigned from his new post for personal reasons. After few days, Enron changed administrators of the pension plan, that prevented employees from selling the shares and kept the freezing period of 30 days. After strong investigation by SEC, it was brought to notice that Fastow created SPE and was fired from the company for such a fraud. Enron made huge loss amounting to $591 million and its debts piled up to $628 million, by the end of 2000. To avert such a catastrophic Dynegy a company that made an announcement of a merger with Enron resisted and backed out of the offer and it proved to be the final blow for Enron . By December 2, 2001, bankruptcy was filed by Enron. The company was unable to stem the progress and ultimately the entire scenario was brought to the forefront that leads t o bankruptcy. The fall of Enron was a big shock for the people and the financial world. It led to huge erosion of the wealth and led to many studies for the cause of the collapse. It is therefore, of utmost necessity to shed light on the shortfalls of Enron so that any future collapse can be averted. The company incurred immense losses and that can be attributed due to poor ethical ground and weak governance. The greed and lust for money led to such unethical practices (Brealey et. al, 2011). The collapse of Enron also provides strong evidence on the need for strong corporate governance because had there been strong corporate governance this would not happen at all. The Board of Directors did not pay heed to any of the happenings and hence there was a major downfall. The collapse could have been averted at the beginning if there was strong code of conduct and management in force (Needles Powers, 2013). Enron will always be a glaring example for misconduct for years to come and will also be noted for the scandal that was done, as a typical example of greed, success, lust and also the way the scam was managed and put to effect that duped the innocent shareholders and erode the entire wealth (Mallin, 2011). It was one of the biggest scandals that shook the financial world and shed light on the drawbacks of ethics and governance. Ongoing Impact of Enron Scandal Enron Corporation is a big name in one of the greatest corporate scandals that have taken place around the globe. Enron Corporation was an American company that has its listing on NSE having business interest in energy and commodities having its base at Houston, Texas. It was often called the darling of the Wall Street as it was a favorite among the shareholders who used to deal in the New York stock exchange. It is said that the company used to employ around 10000 people and was also named as the Americas most innovative company quite a number of times. But at the same time its fall was no less dramatic such was the impact that even today its consequences can be felt, at the same time it also acted more of a boon than a curse upon the shareholders keeping in view the long term implications (Weeks Nantel, 2004). Enron used various deceptive and fraudulent activities in order to cover its misdeeds in the financial statements and its management showed the financial reports in such a m anner as if the company was in a very healthy position, this practice influenced their stock prices considerably there by resulting in huge cash inflows (Manoharan, 2011). But after the scandal came in open it become a nightmare for the American economy, the share price of Enron Corporation which touched to a new high of ninety dollars was merely reduced to a dollar thereby eroding billions of dollars of the investors in a few days, large number of people lost their jobs due to the closure of the company, the peoples trust in the American economic system which was believed to be very strong was shattered and the American economy began to slip (Horngren, 2013). At that time Enron Corporations scandal was the biggest bankruptcy in the corporate world which was latter broken by WorldCom and then surpassed by the Lehmann brothers, the scandal brought a lot of changes in the way the businesses were done it led to the introduction of the Sarbanes and Oxley act which focused more on the disclosures and transparency in the financial reporting system, the act dealt with strictness with the top level management of the companies such as the promoters, board of directors, the CEO and CFO as they were made to certify that whatever happened in the company were done in the best interest of the shareholders and in fully within their power and scope thus making them accountable for the operations of the business, it also led to the introduction of GAAP (Generally accepted accounting policies) and it stated that all companies must follow the principles set in GAAP and those who doesnt deal with such policies will be punished (Clarke, 2010). The act also dea lt strictly with the auditors and it was made mandatory for the companies to have a proper internal control in check which will assure the shareholders and the investors regarding the accuracy and transparency of the financial statements and the disclosures made in it (Davies, 2012). The aftermath of the Enron scandal witnessed a huge change in the code of ethics and governance. Strong efforts were made to check the fraudulent practices, but still some of the scams happened leading to loss of wealth. Ultimately in 2009, the corporate governance was framed that and Sarbanes Oxley Act was formulated to act as a strong check. Various other amendments have been done in the scope of ethics and corporate governance so as to stop any activities that will dupe the innocent customers (Clarke, 2010). The major emphasis was on the process of disclosures is that everything is crystal clear. References Albuquerque, R., Durnev, A., Koskinen, Y 2013, Corporate social responsibility and firm risk: theory and empirical evidence, Boston University. Butler, C 2009, Accounting for Financial Instruments, John Willey Sons Brealey, R., Myers, S. and Allen, F 2011, Principles of corporate finance, New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Clarke, Thomas 2010, International Corporate Governance, London and New York: Routledge Davies, T. Crawford, I 2012, Financial accounting, Harlow, England: Pearson. Douma, Sytse Hein, Schreuder 2013, Economic Approaches to Organizations, London: Pearson Fernando, A C 2009, Corporate Governance Policies and Principles, Oxford University Press Fusaro, Peter C Wilcox, Jeremy 2000, Energy Derivatives: Trading Emerging Markets, New York: Energy Publishing Enterprises Goergen , Marc 2012, International Corporate Governance, Prentice Hall. Horngren, C 2013, Financial accounting, Frenchs Forest, N.S.W: Pearson Australia Group. Lubatkin, M.H. 2009, One more time: What is a realistic theory of corporate governance?, Journal of Organizational Behaviour, vol. 28, pp. 59-67 Mallin, Christine A 2011, Handbook on International Corporate Governance: Country Analyses, Edward Elgar Publishing. Manoharan, T.N 2011, Financial Statement Fraud and Corporate Governance, The George Washington University. Mulbert Peter O 2010, Corporate Governance of Banks after the Financial Crisis Theory, Evidence and Reforms, European Corporate Governance Institute (ECGI), 1-40 Needles, Belverd E. Powers, Marian 2013, Principles of Financial Accounting, Financial Accounting Series: Cengage Learning. Nzuve. S 2011, Some Thoughts of How to Allocate Indirect Costs in a Corporate Environment, Social Science Research network, School of Business, University of Nairobi. Sharp, David J 2006, Cases in Business Ethics. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Venezia, C. C 2005, The ethical reasoning abilities of accounting students, The Journal of American Academy of Business, vol. 6, no.1, pp. 200-207 Weeks, W. A., Nantel, J 2004, Corporate codes of ethics and sales force behavior: A case study, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 753-860

Sunday, December 1, 2019

The Gospel of Amazement

Background As Jesus was heading to Jerusalem, he passed between the cities of Samaria and Galilee, a path that took him through a certain village where he came across ten leapers. These Samaritan men stood a far from the rest of the people as they had been cast off by the society because of their disease. As Jesus approached the men raised their voices and shouted to him, â€Å"Master, have mercy on us.† Jesus then waked towards them and told them to go and show themselves to the priests.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Gospel of Amazement specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As the men walked off, they realized that their leprosy had healed and they were cleansed and therefore went off rejoicing. However, one of them on noticing that his leprosy was gone turned back while glorifying God and walked to where Jesus was standing. He then knelt before him and with his face on Jesus’ feet went a head to thank him for the miracle. Jesus then asked how comes, out of ten men only one came back to thank him. He then asked the man to rise up and go his way and told him that his faith had made him whole. Significance of leprosy At the time that Jesus lived leprosy was a common disease among the people, and the repercussions of having the disease were devastating. It was not enough that the leapers has to lose their limbs, they were also excommunicated from the rest of the society since the disease was contagious. They had to therefore, live outside the city away from the people where they begged for food and clothing. They were viewed as outcasts who had no place in society as men and the banishing of leapers was meant to make sure they die away from the rest of the society1. This was because there had not been even as single case of anyone who had recovered from the disease and the solution was death. Significance of the priests The priests at the time were identified as the mos t powerful religious figures and they had to approve of any miracles that were claimed to have happened. After their approval, the miracle would then be accepted by all the people, both the believers and the non-believers. By Jesus telling the leapers to walk forth and show themselves to the priests he wanted word on the healing of leapers which was a miracle to spread as this would then lead to the glorification of God. This was if the priests approved of the healing as a miracle as Jesus had previously received some criticism from the priest especially after performing miracles on a Sabbath. He, however, knew that even though the priests did not approve of the healing as a miracle, word would still spread due to the nature of leprosy at the time as no one had ever been known to recover from the disease2. This was perhaps the reason behind the wild rejoicing that the leapers had. Significance of the healing The leapers on the other hand, were overwhelmed by the idea of not living w ith the disease ever again and were clearly overjoyed. They were also happy to be integrated back to the society as life outside the city was unbearable both physically and emotionally.Advertising Looking for research paper on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These people had friends as well as families that they loved before they became leapers and got shunned due to the fear that they would pass the disease on to others. They were happy to show everyone that they had been healed and reunite with their family and friends. Only one leaper thought, amid all the jubilation and happiness, of walking back to Jesus and thanking him. There is also the identification of the universality that Jesus held as we are told that the leaper was a stranger. This suggests that Jesus did not know him and did not care much about acquaintances for him to perform miracles. This also suggests that the leapers did not know him in person though previous texts identify that his fame had traveled through the cities of Samaria and Galilee. This therefore suggests that the leaper had to have been really touched by the kind act of Jesus to come back and thank him. It also suggests that the leaper recognized that he owed Jesus for healing him and therefore, the least he could do is get down on his knees and thank him3. What we first identify is that the leapers were aware of whom Jesus was and they also had the idea that the healing was a miracle from God. This was perhaps the reason why they walked away glorifying God. The one leaper who came back to thank Jesus knew that Jesus being the son of God, was responsible for his healing and therefore decided to kneel in front of him and thank him. The leaper had an idea of who was responsible for his healing as well as who he had to thank. The other nine leapers on the other hand, had no idea that they needed to thank Jesus. They obviously had no idea who was responsibl e for their healing and in this case did not bother to step back, as the one leaper did, and thank Jesus. The recognition of responsibility in all cases has not always been universal as people find themselves unaware or openly ignorant of the person responsible for whatever they are experiencing. In this case, not much can be said to blame the nine leapers for not thanking Jesus as it might be believed that they were openly overwhelmed by their new found health4. The essence of faith The essence of faith as it has been used in this context recognizes the belief in something. This belief therefore, gives people an idea of whoever is responsible for the deeds that happen to us and around us. Though the other leapers knew about God, it may be assumed that they had no faith in Jesus and therefore were not bothered to thank him for their healing.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Gospel of Amazement specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Faith is often driven by the belief in something and in instances like this, the out-most belief of a person often manifest themselves amidst all the overwhelming emotions. Whoever one turns to first in such a situation suggests that they have quite a lot of faith in that person. In this case, the leapers had a lot of faith in the people back at the city perhaps due to the belief that they would be accepted back into the society as well as praised since they were the first cases of leprosy ever being healed. They probably knew that with their new found healing they would not only be accepted back into society, but they would also become famous and instant celebrities thereof. All this at the backdrop of their previously infamous status as the society had shunned them and viewed them as useless and a burden to their people. This is why they rushed into the city to show the people that they had been healed and forgot all about Jesus. Faith often comes with t he appreciation of whoever one has faith in. It is common for people to have faith in the wrong person or thing which may either be as a result of their lack of knowledge or out of sheer ignorance5. What sometimes may be referred to as the lack of faith may not necessarily mean that there is no shred of it thereof. This is because different people choose to show their appreciation in different ways. It all, however, boils down to the giving of thanks for a good deed done, more like the classical approach to appreciation of something good that is done whether to you as a person or to someone else. In this case, the one leaper was courteous enough to give thanks because he knew and had the faith inn him that Jesus was responsible for his healing6. He therefore went back and humbled himself before him and thanked him after which Jesus told him that his faith had made him full. The context in which full has been used in this case, suggest that the other leapers, though they had been hea led and were ready to be reintegrated back into society, still lacked something in them that was quite essential for them to lead full lives as human beings7. They lacked faith in Jesus and this is what mattered most in their lives. Faith as it is used to express the fullness of human life indicates that an individual has to have a belief in his spiritual being that defines his spiritual life. This belief has to be in what the person holds dear as the source of his spiritual as well as physical nourishment. In this case, the one leaper believed and had faith that Jesus was the source of both his spiritual as well as his physical nourishment especially since he had been physically healed.Advertising Looking for research paper on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is important to note that the nature of the lives that leapers led meant that they had not only been excluded from living with the rest of the people, but also had been sanctioned to never enter the temples. This meant that the leapers were both physically as well as spiritually disabled as they could not access any form of spiritual guidance from the priests or even participate in worship in the church. Though Jesus had healed them and gotten rid of their physical disease, they were still spiritually handicapped and therefore not whole as human beings. The need to fulfill one’s spiritual being can only be done by having faith in God and in Jesus as his son. Miracles were often used by Jesus and his disciples to show how great God was by showing that he had power over nature. This often led to the conversion of many people into Christianity as more people had faith in God and subsequently Jesus. The last leaper who came back to thank Jesus identified that due to the miracl e that had just happened to him he needed to have faith in Jesus. Faith has often been described as a belief in something. The belief in something requires that one has to have hope in something that is unknown or is uncertain. The faith that the leaper had in Jesus was manifested in his thanking of Jesus as he identified that he was responsible for his healing. He did all this, despite the fact that he was still a stranger to Jesus and when they first summoned him to have mercy on them they thought that he was just another passer-by who would give them food or money. Believing in a stranger is often hard and thanking strangers even harder. One has to have a great amount of faith in someone for them to believe in them especially when it comes to believing that the person will heal him. There had not been previous cases of people who had recovered from leprosy or even people who had been miraculously healed by someone. This suggests that the leaper who had faith in Jesus had a pretty strong belief in him as the healing was an uncertainty. Though some may argue that it was the only option left since there was no other way the lepers could have recovered, it still remains that it takes real faith to identify an option that did not previously exist and have hope in it. Such was the situation in this case for this one leaper who had the courtesy to come back to Jesus and thank him. The issue of faith is often misunderstood with hope in its original context. It, however, differs from hope since faith suggests that the strong belief continues even after one’s success. On the other hand, hope ends after the success of the act that one hopes for8. In this case, all the leapers had hope that one day they would get healed by they did not have faith in God and in Jesus that he would be responsible for the healing. Hope doesn’t introduce a sense of responsibility as faith does. Faith ensures that a person cedes his or her life to the person he has faith in an d gives that person the responsibility over their lives. The responsibility in this case should be in Jesus as every person should let Jesus be responsible for their lives and let him have control over the course that their life takes. From this story we can try and speculate on what wholeness meant in regard to the other nine leapers who did not go back and thank Jesus. For some their lives could never be whole since living as an outcast changes their perception of life and other people’s perceptions of them. Though some could have been happy to have been healed and went back to their families, their families could have rejected them claiming that they thought the leper was dead or claiming they had moved on in life for instance in the case of a wife who might have remarried. For others they might have walked off ready to be reintegrated back into society and work among the people, but the nature of being a beggar for so many years and not having to work would have made them lazy and therefore could not work and had to go back to begging. Others would have felt special since there were probably more than ten leapers in the city and only ten were healed so some would have thought that they had to be really special for Jesus to choose them. This would have made them arrogant which would then lead the rest of the society to despise them and shun them which means that even if they were healed they would still be outcasts. For some, the feeling that he was important would have probably overwhelmed them and it is safe to assume that they would have come across other leapers begging on the side walk as they headed to the temple to meet the priests, which would then have meant that in their pride and joy they would have ignored those begging leapers. This would have been hypocritical considering the fact that they had just been begging like them a few minutes before. All these analogies portray a picture of individuals who even after they were healed, could ne ver be whole since they lacked the integral part of humanity that allows one to live a humble, contented and successful life, which is gratitude through faith. Significance of the number ten The significance of this scripture is also symbolic as one asks themselves what could have been the significance of the number ten and why there weren’t nine or eleven leapers. This brings to mind the issue of the tithe as only one out of ten leapers came back to give thanks. One ten tenth or a tithe of the blessing given by Jesus was returned to him and more blessings were given. This takes us back to the issue of giving tithes that suggests that out of all the income that one is blessed with one has to at least give back ten percent to God as a show of gratitude for being blessed and more blessings will follow. Though this may sound alarmingly close to what many preachers suggest of material wealth being given to those who give ten percent of their income to the church, this passage tea ches of blessings and not material wealth. Blessings in this case may come inform of health, love and acceptance into society. In this case, the ten percent does not have to be in monetary terms. This may be for instance ten percent of a person’s time to serve in the church or help others who are in need in society, or in case of a job where one gets to have a lot of contacts one may help others in the society who have no jobs by giving them at least ten percent of those contacts. The tenth leaper did not have any money to give to Jesus as he was a leaper, so he sacrificed the only thing he had and gave praises and worshiped Him. He sacrificed his urge to jump up rejoicing and speed off into the city to show off his newly found health and humbled himself before God and worshiped Him. Summary An example in real life is where an individual has misplaced priorities that force him or her not to have faith in God and forget that their life is managed by God. This is often the case where one has stayed for long without a job and looses all hope and therefore turns to God and prays that he or she gets a job. Then, out of the blue the person gets a lucrative offer and instead of thanking God the person finds himself bragging to society as well as their old comrades who had branded him or her a failure. This is often driven by the need for approval as well as recognition especially where the lack of a job had led the individual into losing his or her status in the society. In is not a secret that poor people are looked down upon and therefore people do not like to be regarded as poor. This often drives the individual to spend their first salary buying expensive gifts to the people around them so that he or she can gain approval. What the individual usually forgets is that he or she got the job by the grace of God and they should recognize this by showing an appreciation for what God has done for them. People should first seek appreciation by God by worshipping H im first and sacrificing part of their blessings to Him9. For the tenth leaper put God first as he returned to praise and worship before even showing himself to the priests as he had been instructed. This shows that wholeness and gratitude often complement each other. This means that one needs to have a generous and humble heart to receive wholeness. One needs to make God number one in his or her life since to succeed one has to have God in their lives as all good things come from God. There can never be wholeness without gratitude or rather giving thanks to God and also there can never be gratitude without receiving wholeness. Reference Card, Michael. Luke: The Gospel of Amazement. New York: InterVarsity Press, 2011. Charlesworth, James. Jesus and archaeology. New York: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2006. Kelly, Maureen. ChildrenÃ… ¼s Liturgy of the Word 2010-2011: A Weekly Resource. Boston: LiturgyTrainingPublications, 2010. Koet, Bart. Dreams and scripture in Luke-Acts: collected essays. New York: Peeters Publishers, 2006. Maria, Thi. The Lucan Journey: A Study of Luke 9:28-36 and Acts 1:6-11 as an Architectural Pair. New York: Peter Lang, 2010. McDonald, Lee. Forgotten scriptures: the selection and rejection of early religious writings. New York: Westminster John Knox Press, 2009. Nicholes, Lou. Luke: The Perfect Man. London: Xulon Press, 2007. Weissenrieder, Annette. Images of illness in the Gospel of Luke: insights of ancient medical texts. London: Mohr Siebeck, 2003. Footnotes 1 Thi Maria. The Lucan Journey: A Study of Luke 9:28-36 and Acts 1:6-11 as an Architectural Pair. (New York: Peter Lang, 2010). 61. 2 Lou Nicholes. Luke: The Perfect Man. (London: Xulon Press, 2007). 127. 3 Bart Koet. Dreams and scripture in Luke-Acts: collected essays. (New York: Peeters Publishers, 2006). 73. 4 Lee McDonald. Forgotten scriptures: the selection and rejection of early religious writings. (New York: Westminster John Knox Press, 2009). 239. 5 Annette Weissenrieder . Images of illness in the Gospel of Luke: insights of ancient medical texts. (London: Mohr Siebeck, 2003). 28. 6 Maureen Kelly. ChildrenÃ… ¼s Liturgy of the Word 2010-2011: A Weekly Resource. (Boston: LiturgyTrainingPublications, 2010). 94. 7 James Charlesworth . Jesus and archaeology. (New York: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2006). 72. 8 Bart Koet. Dreams and scripture in Luke-Acts: collected essays. (New York: Peeters Publishers, 2006). 45. 9 Michael Card. Luke: The Gospel of Amazement. (New York: InterVarsity Press, 2011). 32. This research paper on The Gospel of Amazement was written and submitted by user Isabell Wilkinson to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.